Finishing or staining wood improves the aesthetics and protects the wood from damage. For a long time, woodworkers understood the importance of adding finish or stain to their projects.
But unfortunately, unfinished wood quickly picks up stains, gets soaked by moisture, and looks old. And that is why adding stains or finish is essential.
Luckily, finishing or staining wood is easy with simple guides that anybody can follow.
The liberty the wood brings is one of the main reasons people choose unfinished wood for their projects. Unfinished wood allows you to customize it to your taste.
However, before applying stain or finish to unfinished wood, you must carry out proper preparation and cleaning. This is where it gets a little tricky, since cleaning with conventional methods can damage the wood.
Cleaning unfinished wood with water can force water into its pores and cause it to bloat or even warp. Using soap can also have adverse effects on unfinished wood.
So, how can you clean unfinished wood to prepare it for a stain or finish without causing any form of damage? This is what you’ll find out in this guide and more. But before then, you need to consider some factors.
Factors to Consider Before Cleaning Unfinished Wood
Before you jump into cleaning the unfinished wood, there are several things you should do to ensure you get the cleaning right. Here’s what to check:
1. Finished or Unfinished
The first thing you should do is to confirm if the wood is unfinished, as it can sometimes get confusing.
To check if the wood is unfinished, drop a small amount of water on the wood and see if it gets absorbed. Unfinished wood would absorb the water while the water will stay on top of treated wood.
2. Wood Type
Different wood types react differently to the carrying cleaning methods and styles available.
Some types of wood absorb stain better, while others require many layers. Knowing the kind of unfinished wood would help you make a better decision.
3. Stability and Condition
Checking the wood’s stability and the condition is an excellent way to handle cleaning. Old wood would naturally be weaker and may require different cleaning methods than newer wood, even of the same type.
Check the speed of moisture absorption to know the stability of the wood. More stable unfinished wood absorbs moisture slower than unstable wood.
Also Read: Woodworking 101 Guide: Basic Skills Every Beginner Should Know
How to Clean Unfinished Wood?
Cleaning unfinished wood is easy when you follow the right method. There are also different methods you can use. The factors above will help you determine the most suitable method to employ.
For Light Dirt
Handling dirt like dust doesn’t require a rigorous cleaning process to remove. With simple steps, you can clean your wood ready for finishing. Here are a few ways:
1. Using Vinegar
Vinegar is a popular cleaning agent used to clean unfinished wood before staining. However, the acidic nature of vinegar can affect the wood, so it is best to dilute it with water before application. Here’s how to use vinegar to clean wood:
- Dilute the Vinegar: Vinegar is too concentrated and would require dilution to ensure it is safe for the wood—Mix ½ cup of vinegar to 1 gallon of water in a large bowl or bucket.
- Clean with a Rag: Soak a rag in the mixture and squeeze to remove excess moisture. Excess moisture on unfinished wood can be damaging, so you want to ensure the rag is not dripping. Instead, use the damp rag to wipe the surface as you would usually and allow it to dry.
2. Using Mineral Spirits
Mineral spirits are an organic solvent mainly used in painting but can also be used to clean bare wood surfaces. It is easy to apply on wood and is effective for light dirt.
- Damp a Rag with Mineral Spirits: Only damp a rag with the spirits to ensure you do not introduce a lot of moisture to the wood. It would help if you also squeezed the rag to remove excess. Wear protective gloves before handling the spirits.
- Wipe the Surface: Use the damp rag to clean the bare wood surface, ensuring to be gentle as you go around the wood. Since you’re dealing with light dirt, you can afford to wipe the wood instead of scrubbing gently.
3. Using a Soft Brush
A soft brush can remove light dirt on the wood surface. The soft bristles ensure the wood is safe from damage while still being able to remove dirt, especially dust particles.
Use a flickering motion to wipe the wood surface with the brush. This motion will loosen and remove dirt from the surface. A vacuum can then remove any remaining particles.
4. Using a Microfiber Cloth
A microfiber cloth sports extra-fine fibers, making it soft and gentle when used as a cleaning material. Ensure the microfiber cloth is clean and dry before using it to wipe the wood surface to remove light dirt.
For Grimes and Stain
Grimes and stains are tough stains that have entered the wood grains. You’ll need a cleaning method matching the dirt level to remove these stains.
1. Using a Vacuum and Stiff Brush
A vacuum and a stiff brush can clean unfinished wood with stain and grime. Tough stains require a more rigorous cleaning process, and the stiff brush will do justice to the ingrained dirt. Only use this method on stable unfinished wood to avoid damage.
- Scrub with Stiff Brush: Use a brush with stiff bristles to rub the wood surface, ensuring you are firm but not too hard. Rubbing the wood too hard can damage it and leave scratch marks.
Instead, scrub along the wood grain as much as possible to reduce the chances of damaging the wood and make it easier to get dirt stuck in the grains.
- Wipe and Clean with a Vacuum: Scrubbing the wood surface with the brush will loosen the dirt on the wood, allowing you to remove them quickly. First, wipe the surface with a dry rag to remove most of the dirt, and then use a vacuum to completely rid the wood of any loose particles.
2. Using Erasing Compounds
Erasing compounds works like a pencil eraser, but this time erases ingrained dirt from unfinished wood. It is a simple way to remove tough dirt from unfinished wood. However, it is more effective when cleaning a small surface.
- Apply Erasing Compound: Apply the erasing compound on the unfinished wood surface you want to clean. Lightly cover the area with the compound using a brush or any suitable material.
- Rub with a Cotton Ball: Use a cotton ball to rub the erasing compound on the bare wood surface. Rubbing in a circular motion will work the erasing compound into the grain and remove the dirt.
As you rub, you’ll notice dark particles on the surface. Once you notice this dark particle, you’re ready for the next step.
- Clean with a Vacuum: Use a vacuum to clean the dirt particles on the wood surface. You may have to reapply the compound and repeat the process several times to completely remove dirt from the surface.
3. Using Sandpaper
Sandpaper can remove tough stains such as dye marks, dirt, and scratches on the wood surface.
Medium to fine sandpaper of 150-grit to 220-grit levels is ideal for cleaning wood. Remember that coarse sandpaper is not ideal as it will leave scratch marks on the wood.
- Brush to Remove Dirt: Using a soft brush to remove surface dust and debris will ensure you can see and focus on the ingrained dirt. Flick the brush to it wipes the dust off the surface.
- Sand: Choose the suitable sandpaper grit for your task. 150 to 190-grit sandpaper is best suited when dealing with dealer stains and scratches, while the finer 200 to 220-grit sandpaper can handle ingrained stains without leaving marks.
You have to sand gently in the direction of the grain to avoid causing damage to the surface.
4. Using Adhesive Rubber
Adhesive rubber is a sticky material that can pick up dirt and stain deep in the grain. The material is soft, so it’s easy to reach inside the wood grains. Here’s how to use it:
- Press the Adhesive Rubber on the Wood: Press the soft adhesive rubber onto the wood surface, forcing it into the grains.
Rolling the rubber along the grain and the wood surface picks up dirt. The adhesive becomes darker to show the presence of dirt on it.
Remove the adhesive from the surface and turn it into a cleaner part before repeating the cleaning process.
5. Using Mineral Spirits and Baking Soda
A combination of mineral spirits and baking soda is powerful enough to remove oil stains, grease, and grime from the surface of unfinished wood.
Because of the nature of the materials, ensure you wear protective gloves and open all windows for proper ventilation.
- Apply Mineral Spirits and Baking Soda: Pour a small amount of mineral spirits on a clean cloth to dampen it. Rub the damp rag on the surface a few times to apply the spirits.
Next, pour baking powder on the surface, ensuring it covers the whole area lightly. This combination is best suited to removing oil stains.
- Cover with Plastic and Let it Sit: The mixture needs some time to work into the material to remove stains and oil marks; however, the baking soda can get blown away by the wind.
To keep the mixture in place, cover it with a plastic sheet and allow it for at least 7 hours or overnight.
- Wipe with a Brush or Vacuum: After the wait time, you can use a brush to remove the baking soda from the surface by flickering or using a vacuum. Repeat the cleaning process if you notice the stain is still there
6. Using Ice Cubes and Plastic Scraper
Sticky substances like chewing gum or tree sap can be unsightly on your unfinished wood. One of the easiest ways to remove sticky dirt on unfinished wood with damage is using a combination of ice cubes and a plastic scraper.
- Place the Ice Cube on the Surface: You’ll need a zipper bag or something to carry the cubes; you want to avoid introducing moisture to the area.
Put the Ice cubes in the zipper bag, drop them on the sticky surface, and leave them there for at least 5 minutes.
- Scrape: After 5 minutes, you can check if the stick material is hard solid before scraping it using a plastic scraper. Next, tilt the scrapper at an angle where it’s easy to scrape off the surface without scratching the wood.
Also Read About: How to Remove Carpet Glue from a Wood Floor? (In 3 Easy Steps)
Before wood sees its first finish or stain, it needs careful preparation and cleaning to ensure the finish is effective. Poorly cleaned surfaces can affect the finish, which may require a lot of corrections to fix.
The good thing about cleaning unfinished wood is the sheer number of methods available. Choosing the right one then depends on some factors, including the stability and type of wood.